is a female squirrel monkey acquired by CRPRC on March 17, 1988.
She had been captured from the wild. CRPRC estimated that she was
five years old.
During her first year at CRPRC she was moved on five separate occasions.
Squirrel monkeys are highly social and every disruption of their
social milieu is challenging due to the collapse of social bonds
and the stress of forming new attachments and relationships.
August 28, 1990: she gave birth to a single infant.
June 12, 1991: her baby was taken from her.
June 13, 1991: she was reported to be thin and suffering from weight
Between August 20, 1991 and April 9, 1992 she was moved four more
Between January and March, 1992, #20413 was a subject in an experimental
protocol titled: The Effect of Female Presence on Male Dyadic Relationships.
The experiment used 32 squirrel monkeys. Its goal was "to investigate
the effect of females on intermale interaction."
The study was primarily observational but the monkeys were moved
from situation to situation frequently. "At the end of the
study, each group will have been exposed to each condition five
times for a total of 30 test days." Essentially, male monkeys
were placed in a "test apparatus" and given visual access
to either 0, 1, or 5 females for 15 minutes and open (physical")
access to either 0, 1, or 5 females for 15 minutes. At the end of
the 15 minutes they were returned to their home cages. Each monkey
had blood taken three times before the study, three times during,
and three times after the study to determine reproductive hormone
September 16, 1992: gave birth to a single infant, #27219.
February 9, 1993: trauma to her tail was noted. Her tail was amputated.
September 28, 1993: records note, "[U]nkept haircoat; diarrhea,
mod.; marginal gingivitis; . . . emaciation . . . returned to homecage
. . ."
September 30, 1993: records note, "No obvious cause for weight
loss . . . supplement diet . . ."
November 23, 1993: moved again.
August 11, 1994: #24013 gives birth again. Infant #28552.
August 20, 1994: taken to hospital with infant; no cause given;
August 30, 1995: moved again.
August 5, 1996: gives birth again. Infant #29834.
December 23, 1997: moved again.
April 7, 1998: moved again.
For just over eleven years, #24013 appears to have been used primarily
for CRPRC"s "Indoor, Time-Mate Breeding" program.
While at CRPRC, she was tattooed, immobilized with ketamine at least
32 times, had blood drawn at least 13 times, was moved to a different
cage (not counting the trips to the infirmary) at least a dozen
times, gave birth to four infants, had her tail amputated, and was
used in a single study lasting 30 days examining reproductive hormone
On May 26, 1999 #24013 was sent to an unknown institution via airfreight.
Four days before shipment, records note, "[A]nimal is thin
but is lactating. Personal area is soiled suggesting loose stool.
Old tail amputation is healed. Satisfactory for shipment."
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